Bridging the Gap Episode 5: Crises Create Crises: Applying the IDEA Model to Crisis Communication at Higher Education Institutions

Bridging the Gap Episode 5: Crises Create Crises: Applying the IDEA Model to Crisis Communication at Higher Education Institutions

In part two of this series focused on strategic communication for higher education, addressing sensitive and controversial issues, SummitET® Strategic Communications experts sit down with internationally recognized scholars of risk and crisis communication, Deanna Sellnow, Ph.D. and Tim Sellnow, Ph.D. to discuss how communicators and decisionmakers can integrate the IDEA Model for effective risk and crisis communication to address sensitive and controversial issues. Higher education institutions can use the IDEA Model to create their own communication framework which is easy to understand, remember, and employ during unprecedented crises experienced at their institutions. 

What is the IDEA Model?

The IDEA model for risk and crisis communication provides spokespersons with a framework for communicating sensitive and controversial issues during times of crisis.  Grounded firmly in theory and empirical research, IDEA uses four key components – Internalization (I), Distribution (D), Explanation (E), and Action (A) – to craft messages and communicate them effectively. 

The IDEA Model
Addressing Communication Gaps and Challenges

Many existing risk communication message templates have an overemphasis on explaining the science behind the risk, leaving the audience concerned but without recommended actions to protect themselves. In other words, the communication was sender-oriented, with an emphasis on information output and a lesser focus on the intended receiver and actionable outcomes. In many cases the communications trainings left lingering questions such as “Was the learning happening? Were people understanding what was going on, realizing its relevance, and taking the appropriate actions?”

The gap between information output and receiver input was in part due to the lack of readymade templates like the IDEA Model. This model was designed to help those who wanted to communicate effectively during a crisis event while ensuring their information was comprehensible to the receiver. 

    Applying the IDEA Model to Higher Education Institutions 

    Higher education is facing several different crises, many related to navigating world events such as the Palestinian-Israeli conflict and Ukraine-Russia conflict. These global, social issues are difficult to discuss and need to be analyzed and addressed in a multi-faceted way, and that is what the IDEA model helps to accomplish.

    Ensuring Stakeholders Understand the Potential Impact of the Crisis 

    Start by identifying the existing information stakeholders have received, then determine how they are interpreting the situation and the risk. Using that knowledge to enhance the messaging around the real (or perceived) risk to develop a more nuanced explanation from an understandable perspective.

    What Process Do Universities Use to Engage with and Understand Their Stakeholders?

    Internalization is not linear; it is very much fueled by dialogue. Higher education institutions can be good at stimulating dialogue and listening to student groups, but not always. As previously mentioned, it is important to start with where the listener is coming from, and then create a mutual understanding about a situation rather than dictating to others the impact and the relevance of a risk or crisis.

    Determine the Most Effective Channels of Communication

    Best practice is for university administrators to simply ask stakeholders what communication channels they use and then commit to effectively using those technologies and pathways. Listening is key. Twenty years ago, risk communication best practices recommended identifying a single best spokesperson and single best channel for delivering messaging. With the advent of 24/7 access to various social media channels, it is critical to have multiple spokespersons converging with a similar message across multiple platforms. Redundancy is not bad; consistency is good.

    “Redundancy is not bad; consistency is good.”

    How Do You Determine the Best Communicator for the Message?  

    It depends on the target audience. Universities have many different stakeholders, and they tend to hold credibility differently from various spokespersons, influencers, and sources. It is important to identify the opinion leaders for your intended audiences. Those opinion leaders are sometimes social media influencers who are needed for their credibility with the target audience that the scientist or academic researcher does not have.

    “We need to be vigilant during the quiet times.”

    To remain adaptive to shifting opinion leaders, we need to be vigilant during the quiet times. When a crisis erupts, it is too late to identify who the influencers are. It is important to have identified multiple stakeholders with diverse perspectives during the quiet periods to create a network that can easily be tapped when needed. If you leave out an influencer in your planning phase, they will have ample opportunity to reach a broad audience on their own, with a message which may not be accurate or reflect your intended message.

    Putting the IDEA Model into Action 

    Surprisingly, the action element was missing from risk communication previously. The audience received the message of risk but were not given concrete actions they could take to protect themselves. Without action, the credibility of the message deteriorates quickly. The cultural norm of the United States is self-efficacy, what can individuals do to protect themselves and those they care about. Cross-cultural research has shown collective efficacy and community effort is critical to reducing harm and mitigating risk.

    As crisis communicators, we should provide stakeholders with an action plan which includes what they can do, what they should do, and what they must do depending on where you are on the crisis timeline. Furthermore, for the plan to be effective, it must be clearly communicated and feasible, so the intended audience can take action without getting bogged down in details.  

    Future Applications of the IDEA Model 

    There is potential for the IDEA Model and the dialogue that comes with it to help expose middle ground on polarizing issues. It works by requiring communicators to listen and internalize the thoughts and feelings of those affected by an issue before moving forward. Surveys have increasingly shown individuals on both sides of any given political spectrum value the middle ground, especially when they believe they are moving toward it. 

    For the past three years, Dr. Deanna Sellnow and Dr. Tim Sellnow have worked with the DECIPHER Project, a multi-country research collaborative of crisis communication scholars. They studied how authorities and the media in seven different countries affected people’s ability to protect themselves against COVID-19 and be better prepared for the next crisis. This collaborative research looked at government communication, citizen responses, and media coverage and focused on the nuanced differences across the seven represented countries. Understanding these cultural nuances is a critical lesson for crisis communication in the globalized society we live in. 

    Final Takeaway of the IDEA Model 

    As communicators go forward with the application of the IDEA Model, we need to remember to capitalize on the quiet times and build relationships and networks across cultures and other barriers of difference. We should stay vigilant between crises so when they do erupt, we will already have a Community of Practice in place to be able to disseminate a redundant, consistent message. Strategic communication is ongoing and social capital can and should be built during those quiet times. 

    To further engage with Dr. Deanna Sellnow’s and Dr. Tim Sellnow’s work: 

    • Check out their new book: Before Crisis: The Practice of Effective Risk Communication 

    The IDEA model offers a simple and user-friendly approach to crisis communication. Its application highlights the shortcomings of poorly coordinated and poorly executed risk and crisis communications during a crisis event. Adopting the principles of IDEA offers organizations and media outlets the chance to greatly improve disaster communication. 

    Meet the Experts Featured in This Podcast

    Deanna Sellnow, PhD

    Deanna Sellnow, Ph.D.

    Professor of Strategic Communication &
    Co-creator of the IDEA Model

    Tim Sellnow

    Tim Sellnow, Ph.D.

    Professor of Strategic Communication &
    Co-creator of the IDEA Model

    Holly Hardin

    Holly Hardin

    Former Comms Analyst for DOE/ NNSA Enterprise & Emergency Management Lead at ORISE

    Ron Edmond, Crisis Communications Subject Matter Expert

    Ron Edmond, Ed.D.

    Former Acting Director of ORISE Emergency Management Lab & Crisis Communication SME

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    Bridging the Gap Episode 4: Strategic Communications for Higher Education: Sensitive and Controversial Issues

    Bridging the Gap Episode 4: Strategic Communications for Higher Education: Sensitive and Controversial Issues

    SummitET® Strategic Communications experts discuss crisis communications fundamentals that higher education institutions can incorporate when addressing controversial and sensitive issues with their stakeholders.

    There has been quite a bit of groundswell on university campuses and social media about sensitive and controversial topics. The pace at which issues emerge and make headlines is increasing rapidly, and they seem to have a significant lifespan.

    In today’s episode of Bridging the Gap, SummitET Senior Vice President Adam Montella speaks with our team of Strategic Communications experts about crisis communications fundamentals that higher education institutions can incorporate when addressing these challenging issues with their stakeholders.

    What are some sensitive and/or controversial communication issues facing university campuses right now? 
    • Antitrust scrutiny with college athletics 
    • Proliferation of artificial intelligence 
    • Plagiarism and research integrity 
    • Diversity, equity and inclusion (DEI) and race relations 
    • Free speech, safe space, and first amendment 
    • Domestic and international political environments 
    • Natural, manmade, and technical disasters 
    • Campus protests 
    • Active shooter incidents 
    • Sexual harassment and exploitation
    • Reputation management

    Note: SummitET exercises and trainings do not cover each of these topics individually; rather, they utilize proven crisis communication strategies to address a broad spectrum of controversial and sensitive issues.

    Footprint of Influence 

    The challenges these issues cause go beyond the boundaries of the campus. They have local, regional, and national effects. They can impact university funding, athletics recruitment, and campus operations. We’ve also witnessed how the response to the issues holds the potential to damage the personal and professional reputation of individuals as well as the brand of higher education institutions.

    The data backs this up. A June 2023 Gallup poll indicated that Americans’ confidence in higher education institutions has declined to its lowest point.  

      Gallup Poll 2023

      A 2022 George Washington University Government Communications and Public Affairs study was conducted to assess public trust in messaging as well as to identify areas for improving communications between government and private sector practitioners. It found that the lack of public trust in government is largely due to a few external factors, including a rise in disinformation, views that the government is politically-motivated, and the hyperpolarization in politics. The study also found that these external factors are often caused by internal communication challenges within the organizations such as an outdated onesizefitsall approach and excessive bureaucracy which lead to inefficiency, disorganization, and slow sharing of information.

      Credibility and Trust 

      Reputations are won or lost in a crisis. Universities are well-versed in handling the everyday crisis; however, new and emerging communication issues present unprecedented challenges which may require additional training and exercises in order for university leaders to be prepared to respond effectively. 

      In order for a stakeholder audience to accept a university’s messaging, the spokesperson must be perceived as being a trustworthy and credible source of information. They should also be able to shoulder the university or organization during a crisis. Credibility can be shared by association; the trustworthiness of a spokesperson can be used to amplify the trustworthiness of the university.

      Key Characteristics of a Trustworthy Spokesperson 

      If these characteristics can be demonstrated during a crisis, it is more likely that the audience will be able to internalize the message and see how it affects them and their belief systems. 

      Key Characteristics of a Trustworthy Spokesperson
      Effective Crisis Communications Response 

      Effective crisis response is comprised of two simple things: what we do and what we say.  

      Every stakeholder in a crisis expects you to care; a foundational strategy in crisis communications is thus a timely demonstration to the stakeholder that you care and will continue to care as long as that expectation exists. 

      Statements and actions that are stakeholder-centric should be at the core of your communication response strategy. Develop communications strategies and messaging for each stakeholder audience (e.g. students, parents, teachers) to really instill confidence in the university’s ability to manage sensitive and controversial issues. 

      You have three seconds to make your first impression as you get your message across virtually, in-person, or in writing. It is important that in these three seconds you are perceived in a positive manner. 

      Five Components of the Crisis Communication Continuum 

      Furthermore, there are five components of the Crisis Communication Continuum that should be considered as you develop your communication strategy for the higher education community.

      5 Basic Criteria for the Crisis Communication Continuum
      The Golden Hour  

      Incremental delays in showing that we care can have a greater than incremental impact on trust. We can operationalize the Golden Hour – the first hour following a crisis – in ways that are both explanatory of the past and predictive of the future. The cycle of human interaction through digital technology largely dictates the Golden Hour; we therefore must forecast and be proactive in developing messages to successfully establish credibility and build trust.

      The Golden Hour
      The Rule of 45 minutes-6 hours-3 days-2 weeks 

      If you can demonstrate that you care within the first 45 minutes, you can mitigate fear and build trust. If you can consistently show that you care thereafter, you can maintain that trust. 

      If you can’t show that you care within six hours, the narrative will largely be overtaken by other sources, such as influences with louder voices or more clout. 

      If you can’t show that you care within three days, then you will likely face at least two weeks of negative media and a complete loss of trust. 

      The Rule of 45min, 6hr, 3days
      Build a Communications Plan 

      Start from and commit to your institution’s core values and develop all strategies from there. 

      Build your crisis communications team to include leadership, communicators, and other appropriate staff. 

      Develop prescripted messages that are tailored to possible crises. You can adjust those messages later with your communications team if you have a strong core. 

      Don’t be silent. Silence says something, and allows time and space for critics, adversaries, or the media to set another narrative.

      Meet the Experts Featured in This Podcast

      Mark Basnight VP | Strategic Communications

      Mark Basnight

      Former Comms Analyst for DOE/NNSA Enterprise & Public Information Officer (MPIO)

      Holly Hardin Director of Strategic Communications

      Holly Hardin

      Former Comms Analyst for DOE/ NNSA Enterprise & Emergency Management Lead at ORISE

      Ron Edmond, Crisis Communications Subject Matter Expert

      Ron Edmond, Ed.D.

      Former Acting Director of ORISE Emergency Management Lab & Crisis Communication SME

      Adam Montella, Senior Vice President at SummitET

      Adam Montella

      Former GM of Emergency Management for the NY & NJ Port Authority & Disaster Management SME

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      Read more about the XF ScoreTM in the following article:

      Creating a New Standard for Evaluating Tabletop Exercises” by John Duda and Scott Glick

      Domestic Preparedness Journal, July 25, 2023 

      Tabletop exercise design checklist

      Is your organization better prepared today after completing a tabletop exercise or training? How did the experience better position you to face a threat or hazard? If it is difficult to answer these questions, how do you know the exercise was an effective use of time and resources?

      In Part 1 of Episode 3 of Bridging the Gap, preparedness experts introduce you to the XF ScoreTM, a rubric for analyzing the effectiveness of tabletop exercises and trainings for crises.

      The creators of the XF ScoreTM speak with Pete Gaynor, former DHS Acting Secretary and former FEMA Administrator, about how this new evaluation tool allows for a better outcome than the Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program, or HSEEP. Created by FEMA, HSEEP provides a set of principles for evaluating exercise programs. The XF ScoreTM helps to prove whether your agency is more prepared because of the training and allows you to address weaknesses in a revised training plan.

      Stay tuned for Part 2 of this podcast episode: once you’ve collected data from your training or exercise evaluation, how do you interpret and utilize it to strengthen future plans?

      Contributors:

      Pete Gaynor

      Pete Gaynor

      Former DHS Acting Secretary; Former FEMA Administrator

      John Duda, Chief Executive Officer and founding partner at SummitET

      John Duda

      Co-creator of the XF ScoreTM; Chairman and CEO of SummitET®

      Scott Glick VP and General Counsel

      Scott Glick

      Co-creator of the XF ScoreTM; Former US DOJ Director, Preparedness & Response
      Adam Montella, Senior Vice President at SummitET

      Adam Montella

      Senior Vice President of SummitET®

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      SummitET Subject Matter Experts interpret the emerging threat discussed in the following article. 

      Three months, three missing radioactive items. Here’s what you need to know” by Tara Subramaniam

      CNN.com, March 31, 2023 

      non destructive testing

      The recent articleThree months, three missing radioactive items. Here’s what you need to know provides an overview of the recent loss of regulatory control of three items containing radioisotopes in Thailand, Australia, and the United States. The article offers examples of how radioisotopes are used in commercial applications, discusses their associated hazards, and addresses the frequency of loss of regulatory control as seen in these three cases.

      Radioactive Isotopes Uses

      Radiological materials are used for beneficial purposes across the nation and the world daily – in medicine, research, and industrial applications. These materials are important for diagnosing and treating medical conditions like cancer or to ensure that the integrity of infrastructure like roads or pipelines are verified before beginning construction or use.  

      The nature and use of radioactive materials in devices vary. In the U.S., radioactive materials are highly regulated, and the level of regulation, security, and oversight is based on the potential risk posed from the sources within the device. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and 39 Agreement States work together to ensure that all radioactive materials are properly licensed and used across all industries.

      Industrial Radiography Camera

      The industrial radiography camera, like the one that went missing recently in the U.S., is one common device that has greater regulatory oversight due its use as a high activity source. It is used in industrial settings for various types of non-destructive testing, but most commonly it is used to image welds or other structural integrity of pipes or metal structures. Most of these devices use an Iridium-192 (Ir-192) source which emits strong gamma photons that are needed to penetrate through the metal to create the images used to look for cracks or defects in the welds, among other purposes. Thousands of industrial radiography jobs are safely conducted across the nation every year.

      The Ir-192 source is kept inside a very robust, shielded container, about the size of a shoebox, except when the imaging is occurring – then it is cranked out of the shield through a long tube to expose the film around the pipe or weld of interest. The source is only outside of the shielded housing for 30 seconds to a minute at a time and under very controlled settings carefully managed by the trained operators. This operator training, as well as the requirements for storage, security, transportation, and general use of the device, is outlined in regulations, and the NRC and Agreement States work closely with the licensees who are using these devices.

      Theft or Loss of Radioactive Materials   

      Bottom-line, individuals can’t just go and purchase or use an industrial radiography camera or other higher activity source without meeting stringent regulations that include significant site security and background checks on those employees with access to the materials.  

      However, as indicated in the article, accidents sometimes happen. When they do occur, immediate notification is required, the regulatory agencies actively coordinate with the licensee and any other appropriate agencies to locate the source and oversee any regulatory enforcement actions necessary to prevent other issues from occurring.

      Prevention 

      Sources can go missing by accident or by act of terrorism but in either scenario it is important that agencies are prepared to prevent and mitigate this risk. Preparing via the development of intelligence information sharing pathways, by creating specialized plans for communications, and other lifesaving tactics are what SummitET’s experts focus on when creating tailored solutions including exercises and training. Learn more how experts can help your agency be at its most prepared.

      Contributors:

      Angela Leek, Director of Radiological Solutions and Regulatory Affairs

      Angela Leek, CHP

      Director of Radiological Solutions and Regulatory Affairs

      Andrew Manson Law Enforcement and CBRNE Subject matter expert

      Andrew Manson

      Law Enforcement/CBRNE SME

      Justin walker law enforcement and SWAT Subject matter expert

      Justin Walker

      Law Enforcement SME/Retired Phoenix Police Officer/SWAT Operator; Lead RSARex SME

      Kevin Quigley, CBRN and WMD Subject Matter Expert at SummitET

      Kevin Quigley

      All Hazards SME

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      Bridging the Gap Episode 1: Bioterrorism and Ricin

      SummitET Subject Matter Experts interpret the emerging threat discussed in the following article. 

      Ricin’s Round Two: Germany Prevents Another Islamic State-Motivated Bioterrorism Attack” by Herbert Maack

      Terrorism Monitor, Volume: 21 Issue: 5, March 10, 2023

      biological threat mitigation

      According to Herbert Maack’s Terrorism Monitor article “Ricin’s Round Two: Germany Prevents Another Islamic State-Motivated Bioterrorism Attack,” Germany has experienced multiple ricin bomb threats in the last five years. A terrorist plot in 2018 had the capability to kill over 13,000 people but was disrupted thanks to U.S. intelligence passed to German law enforcement. This past January, German officials faced another possible ricin chemical attack. According to the media, the 2023 attack was postponed by the terrorists due to their lack of a critical toxic substance, and officials were able to intercept the suspects before loss of life occurred.

      What is Ricin?

      Ricin is a naturally occurring toxic substance that was discovered in 1888 by German scientist Peter Herman Steelmark. It is extracted from castor beans or from the waste materials generated during the production of castor oil, and its final form can be a white powder, mist, or pellet. Castor oil has many medicinal, industrial, and pharmaceutical uses. It’s commonly used as an additive in foods, medications, and skin care products, as well as an industrial lubricant and biodiesel fuel component. Poisoning by the ingestion of castor beans themselves is rare, as they have a hard coat which prevents the release of the ricin toxin.

      castor beans

      Toxicity and Biological Threat

      Ricin is very toxic and is a bad actor when it comes to eukaryotic cells or mammals like us, because it affects all cells. Essentially, it’s two proteins that are linked together. There’s an action chain and the AB chain, or binding chain. They’re linked together with a bond known as a Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP). What does that mean? It means it will prevent the body’s cells from making necessary proteins. It’s a poison that impacts the structure, function, and regulation of cells it interacts with making it an incredibly lethal mechanism of killing and damaging cells when inhaled or ingested. Though it may not be all bad, scientists are actively researching ricin as a cancer therapeutic to find a way to target cancer cells with ricin.

       

      Historical Threat

      Historically, ricin has been used much more as an assassination tool or poison rather than in terrorist attacks on large groups of people. The most famous assassination was in 1978 in London, where a Bulgarian dissident was waiting at a bus stop when he felt a pain in his leg where he noticed someone had bumped him with the tip of an umbrella. Later that night he developed a fever and irritation at the site of the injury but wasn’t aware yet of its severity. His symptoms worsened and he died at the hospital three days later. During his autopsy they found a tiny pellet that had been injected into his leg via the umbrella. The pellet was hollow and medical experts believed that it was filled with ricin.

      While ricin is not a typical biological WMD that first responders face, in the early 2000s there were a number of reported incidences of white powder threats, believed to be ricin, and it does continue to be a problem. You see it on the first responder side from HAZMAT technicians for various ideations of terrorism, criminals, state sponsored programs. So, while not common, ricin as a biological weapon is definitely a threat, and it is deadly.

       

      Symptoms and Treatment

      Some initial symptoms from ricin exposure include progressive shortness of breath, irritation at the entry site, possible nausea, or vomiting. Symptoms may occur as early as 3 to 4 hours and will rapidly progress over 12 to 24 hours. The rapid progression of symptoms is what differentiates ricin poisoning from other common illnesses (colds, foodborne illness) that have similar initial ailments.

      Recognizing this timeline is very important for responders, and they must coordinate and communicate well with law enforcement and confirmatory labs.

      There is no antidote to ricin poisoning. If exposed, seeking medical attention immediately is paramount, as there may be measures taken to try to remove the ricin from the body or provide supportive care. Death can occur within 36 to 72 hours depending on the level and type of exposure.

      A significant challenge to treating ricin poisoning is being able to quickly identify whether you’ve been exposed or not. There may be a 12 to 24 hour period before you realize you’ve been exposed and that’s where the real damage comes in. Some testing does exist at a medical facilities if they suspect ricin, but the level of uncertainty is typically high. The exposure to an unknown toxin with some vague symptoms creates a real problem for medical treatment.

       

      Response

      Mass panic is a big concern with any type of CBRNE event. With ricin and other deadly toxins, the greater concern is loss of life. It’s important for agencies and government responders to train for bio-terrorism threats like ricin. The U.S. military does train civil support teams; Marine and Army CBRNE defense routinely train for chemical and biological toxins. These are some of the considerations when responding to a ricin terror threat:

       

      Protective Equipment

      Responders should consider the use of personal protective equipment such as respirators, suits, gloves, and eye protection. Because ricin is a toxin derived from a living organism, detection is more challenging than other chemicals.

      Decontamination

      Anyone going into the hot zone for identification, sampling, and monitoring needs to be decontaminated  on the way out.

      Communications

      Strategic communications teams are responsible for keeping the public informed to help mitigate panic.

      Intelligence

      Typically, tips from the public is what brings in the most intel, i.e. see something, say something. Tripwires, as the FBI calls them, are also common. An example of this is where companies that sell castor beans report suspicious purchases to authorities.

      Field Testing

      The difficulty in detecting the presence of ricin means that field testing is not as reliable as confirmatory testing. Field testing often results in more false positives and you have only a 12 hour period to take and send samples to testing.

      Exposure

      Meanwhile, you need to categorize people into definitely exposed, likely exposed, maybe exposed, or definitely not exposed. Some may need monitoring and some of the symptoms that you may observe in the initial hours could be related to the psychological component of threat exposure. It is critical for responders to be educated in the realities of ricin exposure and to understand the psychological component for the exposed individuals and their family, because there are limited treatment options.

      Exercises and Training

      Exercising and training this type of scenario will help to prepare response agencies, local government, or state government has for this type of event. It allows agencies to understand current knowledge, strengthen information sharing pathways, and build a cross agency plan. Consistent training will help to validate that plan to then refine it as threats emerge and evolve.

      Preparedness experts like those at SummitET can assist in the process to review your plans, identify any gaps, help you revise the plan, and then exercise it. Tabletop exercises are typically done first with all agency participants in one meeting space. This includes people from Hazmat, fire, law enforcement, and the medical community. The action at the site makes all the difference in terms of limiting some of the concerns and understanding what type of decontamination and protective equipment that you need.

      Knowledge is power in preparing for biological exposures and providing confidence on-site. There is no such thing as overkill in preparedness, because there’s no safe level of horizon, and preparedness is not an accident.

       

      Contributors:

      Andrew Manson Law Enforcement and CBRNE Subject matter expert

      Andrew Manson

      Law Enforcement SME and prior program manager for the FBI’s domestic WMD response

      Kevin Quigley, CBRN and WMD Subject Matter Expert at SummitET

      Kevin Quigley

      All Hazards SME and retired U.S. Marine Corps Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives (CBRNE) defense officer

      William "Jeff" Skinner, M.D.

      Jeff Skinner, M.D.

      Radiation Oncologist and Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives (CBRNE) SME

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      “Active shooters” were not always considered cause for alarm in the United States. This post examines the trend of active shooter incidents over time and offers preparedness solutions to mitigate the threat.

      Bridging the Gap Podcast Episode 2

      Bridging the Gap Episode 2: Stolen Radiation Sources

      SummitET Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) discuss the emerging threat of stolen radiation sources.